||Hard, fairly heavy wood, sometimes siliceous, with working qualities for both machine and hand tools, with moderate blunting effect and moderate cutting resistance. Sands pretty easily but surfaces are rated as only fair to poor because of coarse texture and irregular grain, which also makes planing somewhat difficult. Nailing screwing reported as pretty easy, but pre-boring is recommended. Turning and carving are reported as fairly easy, mortising, boring, moulding, routing, etc are reported as moderately easy. Gluing is fairly difficult to very difficult.
||Agricultural implements, bent parts, boat building (general), bridge construction, brush backs & handles, building construction, cabin construction, Fine furniture,flooring, joinery, kitchen cabinets,marine construction, millwork, mine timbers, moldings, office furniture, paneling, parquet flooring, piling, poles, posts, railroad crossties, railroad ties, rustic furniture, shafts and handles, shipbuilding, stairworks, stools, structural work, sub-flooring, tool handles, turnery, utility furniture, vehicle parts, decorative veneers etc.